Fluke Egg Detection

Bacteriology: Mastitis Culture (Dairy Cattle)

Bacteriology testing involves growing bacteria on special growth media. The medium usually used to grom the bacteria is agar. Agar usually has ingredients added to it to encourage bacteria to grow, a typical example of this is sheep blood, which provides nutrients to the bacteria while they are growing. When the bacteria are added to the media, they are usually placed in an incubator set at warm temperature, the reason being that bacteria multiply faster when they are kept in a warm environment. Some bacteria are anaerobic, and these may need to be kept in a reduced oxygen environment, this is achieved by placing them in an incubator with an increased level of carbon dioxide.

Once the bacteria have been allowed to culture they are examined so that the type of bacteria present can be identified. There are a number of ways in which bacteria can be identified, one is by looking at the appearance (morphology) of the bacterial colony (groups of bacteria) growing on the agar. The bacteria can be stained and examined under the microscope to see whether they are gram-positive or gram-negative , other biochemical tests can be carried out, as can more advanced identification methods such as PCR or Maldi-tof.

Once the bacterial “isolates” have been identified they can then be grown in growth medium to allow antimicrobial sensitivity testing to be carried out. Use of antimicrobial sensitivity testing allows vets to decide the most appropriate antibiotics to use when treating bacterial infections. The use of bacteriology testing and antimicrobial sensitivity testing is a prudent step in the use of evidence based medicine to help reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR)

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